A+ A A-

ES 409: Weather Systems and Services (MAS)

Course Title

Weather Systems and Services (MAS)

Course Code

ES 409

Course Type




Year / Semester


Instructor’s Name

 Silas Michaelides (Lead Instructor), Filippos Tymvios, Demetris Charalambous



Lectures / week

 1 (3 hr)

Laboratories / week


Course Purpose and Objectives

The course aims to familiarize the students with the synoptic-scale weather systems and their evolution, to introduce the student to basic and advanced topics in synoptic and mesoscale meteorology and to apply theoretical ideas to real-time and archived data. In this respect, mid-latitude, tropical and subtropical systems are considered, combining a local, regional and global perspective.

Through the presentation of the principles of analysis of synoptic-scale systems, the course introduces the basic aspects of synoptic systems diagnosis and forecasting. A brief introduction is made to the provision of related weather services to meet users’ needs and to the adoption of quality management systems.

Learning Outcomes

  • Apply conceptual models of synoptic, mesoscale, and convective scale phenomena to integrate observed and forecast data into coherent structures, and to explain the formation, evolution, and characteristics of these phenomena using knowledge of physical and dynamical
  • Detect situations where real-world weather systems deviate from the conceptual models using knowledge of the models’ limitations and suggest reasons for these
  • Predict occurrences of extreme or hazardous weather conditions associated with synoptic, mesoscale, or convective scale phenomena, and monitor observed data to verify these
  • Generate analyses and basic forecasts using observed and forecast real-time or historical data, including the monitoring and observing of the weather.
  • Summarise the role of national meteorological services and other providers using knowledge of the needs of society, impacts of severe weather, the products and services used to meet users’ needs, and the processes used to manage quality.



 Required  None 

Course Content

Mid-latitude and polar synoptic-scale weather systems

Weather systems, Air masses, Fronts, Mid-latitude, Depressions, Polar weather

Systems, Jet stream and jet streaks, Synoptic-scale vertical motion, Weather impacts, Limitation of conceptual models.

Tropical and sub-tropical weather systems

General circulation in the tropics, Main tropical disturbances, Analysis of tropical Flows, Tropical waves, Tropical cyclones, Monsoons, Ocean-atmosphere

Coupling, Weather impacts.

Mesoscale weather systems

Mesoscale systems, Mesoscale Features associated with depressions, Gravity waves,

Convective systems, Mesoscale convective systems, Orographic mesoscale phenomena, Extreme weather, Weather monitoring and observation, Processing observations, Synoptic analysis and interpretation, Interpretation of radar data, Interpretation of satellite imagery, Integration of conventional and remote sensing data.

Weather forecasting

Local weather, Forecast process, Types of forecasting method, Conceptual models, Practical forecasting.

Service delivery

Service providers, Service provision, Key products and services, Hazardous Weather, Quality management systems, Benefits and costs of meteorological services

Teaching Methodology

 In class teaching


  • Howard Bluestein: Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Mid-Latitudes Volume II - Observations and Theory of Weather Systems.
  • John M. Wallace and Peter V. Hobbs: Atmospheric Science (Second Edition) -An Introductory Survey.
  • Palmén and C.W. Newton: Atmospheric Circulation Systems – Their Structure and Physical Interpretation.
  • Gary Lackmann: Midlatitude synoptic meteorology: Dynamics, analysis and forecasting.
  • Donald Ahrens: Essentials of Meteorology - An Invitation to the Atmosphere.


 Written final exam and written/oral assignments



Publications & Media